Chapter 2: Protons

The Electronic Shell

Looking at the entire phenomenon of a hydrogen atom (fig. 15), we have a proton nucleus pulling spacetime in through its northern pole and expelling it from its southern pole. Its rotational pattern exhibits the complex geometry of one entire series of derivative axes. Because the proton evacuates a spherical region of space in its immediate vicinity, we can conclude that the spacetime pressure between the nucleus and the electronic shell, with the exception of the south polar jet, is lower than the pressure of the ambient spacetime just outside of the atom. The electronic shell, in turn, is the spherical surface at which the polar jet’s outward pressure is balanced by the inward pressure of the ambient spacetime in the atom’s vicinity. To visualize this, imagine the proton gathering up the spacetime within the atom and concentrating it into its south polar jet. The rate at which any given series of derivative axes evacuates the atom and concentrates the associated spacetime into a jet, determines the pressure inside the electronic shell. If the proton rotates very rapidly, the internal pressure drops. When the proton slows down, the internal pressure rises.

The Hydrogen Atom


Figure 15—The hydrogen atom has a primary electron at the end of the south polar jet which tracks the course of the nth derivative axis. The poles of every other derivative axis can be thought of as derivative electrons (only two shown here). The pressure inside the electronic shell is negative relative to the ambient spacetime. And the electronic shell is the termination shock point at which the atom achieves cosmological equilibrium.

From these considerations it is clear that an electron is not an independent particle of matter, but is rather the bump on the electronic shell at which the proton’s south polar jet is balanced by the ambient spacetime—a phenomenon captured by the notion of termination shock. This is the reason protons and electrons have an “equal but opposite charge;” they are both part of the same phenomenon. Atomic electrons would not exist without the protons that generate them. Still, if we treat an electron as a discrete particle, we can see that it is a point of high pressure that corresponds to and balances the low pressure inside the atom. The faster the proton spins, the lower the internal pressure, and the more intense the electron becomes. This explains the, perhaps counterintuitive, fact that EM waves from cold hydrogen atoms (atoms in low energy states) are shorter and more intense than waves from atoms in high energy states. At low temperatures, atoms must rotate more rapidly in order for their inter- nal pressures to remain proportionate to the low ambient pressure.

We can refer to the electronic shell as an atom’s cosmological equilibrium, a concept that dominates everything in the universe from atoms to stars. In general, this equilibrium state reflects the simultaneous requirements that spacetime decompress from the highly compressed condition left over from the Big Bang, while not recompressing the ambient spacetime that has already decompressed and which now constitutes the vacuum pressure of the cosmos. Notice that the electronic shell of an atom would not exist were it not for the ambient spacetime, near its equilibrium pressure, pushing back against the proton’s polar jet. Indeed, not even the polar jet would exist. The electron is nothing more than the point at which these two—polar jet and cosmos—collide.

By way of foreshadowing, free electrons and beta particles are similar to atomic electrons, though obviously they are not generated in the same way. Specifically, any positive pressure shock wave (longitudinal wave) in a spacetime field, is phenomenologically similar to the positive pressure point on an atom’s electronic shell. In later chapters we will examine several of the myriad ways in which such longitudinal waves are generated.

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